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  1. Week 1: Democracy and Non-democracy 6 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Read chapters 1 and 2, pp. 1-38. The introduction is the most important (pp. 21)

    2. Recommended readings for week 1 5 items
      1. Chapter 1: Democracy, Non-Democracy, and the Varieties of Political Competition • AuthoritarianismBook

        Webpage Supplementary For further graphical material, take a look at the online resources here. Contains some computer code - do ignore this unless you'd like to experiment with it yourself; instead, take a look at the figures.

      2. Chapter 2: The Changing Face of Non-Democratic Rule • AuthoritarianismBook

        Webpage  For further graphical material, take a look at the online resources here. Contains some computer code - do ignore this unless you'd like to experiment with it yourself; instead, take a look at the figures.

      3. Political institutions under dictatorship - Jennifer Gandhi, Ebooks Corporation 2008 (electronic resource)

        Book Supplementary In Chapter 1, pp. 1-41, Gandhi argues for a “minimalist” view of the distinction between democracy and non-democracy. Also contains some useful material on the history of the term “dictatorship,” which is also discussed in chapter 1 of my book.

      4. Autocratic Breakdown and Regime Transitions: A New Data Set - Geddes, Barbara ; Wright, Joseph ; Frantz, Erica 2014

        Article Recommended A somewhat different approach to the classification of non-democratic regimes than the one Svolik adopts. Discusses some stylized facts about the duration of various non-democratic regime types. You may wish to take a look to see how political scientists approach the problem of classifying different non-democratic regimes. I use the Geddes, Wright, and Frantz dataset extensively in my book.

      5. The Polity IV User's Manual

        Document Supplementary The Polity IV user's manual, which explains the coding of another big democracy dataset. You may wish to take a look to get a sense of how political scientists try to devise regime classifications, though parts of the manual are notoriously obscure.

  2. Week 2: Totalitarianism vs. Authoritarianism 22 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Read chapter 3, pp. 39-50

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 2 20 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 0 or 9 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week. The class will lose "class points" (not individual points - see first lecture) if the 0/9 group cannot manage to explain all of these readings in the second week, however, so coordinate to avoid choosing the same reading to summarize as everyone else!
      1. Aftershocks: great powers and domestic reforms in the Twentieth century - Seva Gunitsky 2017 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Read chapter 1. Other chapters are also very interesting.

      2. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule - Milan W. Svolik 2012

        Book Recommended Chapters 1-2 (pp. 1-50) are very good; they cover similar material to chapter 1 of my book, but in a somewhat more technical form. Chapter 1 explores the distinctive problems that, in Svolik’s view, non-democratic regimes face, and chapter 2 defines what he means by dictatorship and how to understand its varieties. Some of you may find it useful to take a look at chapter 2 before looking at chapter 1, since chapter 2 contains Svolik’s definition of authoritarian rule and his defense of his particular way of distinguishing dictatorships from democracies.

      3. Totalitarian and authoritarian regimes - Juan J. Linz 2000

        Book Recommended Chapter 2: Totalitarianism. Pp. 65-142. Unfortunately most work on totalitarianism came in big books; outside of Wikipedia, there are few short treatments of the concept. This piece on totalitarianism by Juan Linz is extremely comprehensive (Linz had an encyclopedic knowledge of the politics of many countries), but it is also quite dry and very long. (I draw on it extensively in my own discussion in chapter 3 of my book). It also assumes some knowledge of history you may not have. If you run into difficulties reading it, try to at least get the basic points of the piece. Consider, in particular, the following questions: What are the key characteristics of totalitarianism? Which characteristics are essential to the concept, and which are not? What are some examples of totalitarian regimes? How did their politics differ from the politics of other non-democratic regimes?

      4. Conceptualizing and Measuring Democracy: A New Approach - Michael Coppedge, John Gerring, David Altman, Michael Bernhard 2011-6

        Article Supplementary A piece on the many ways that democracy can be defined and measured, something we will be doing throughout the term. Advocates for a multidimensional approach to the measurement of democracy.Take a look if you want to get a sense of how political scientists try to do measure democracy and non-democracy.

      5. Methodology | Freedom House

        Webpage Recommended Methodology for the Freedom in the World report. This course has often tried to follow Freedom House's methodology to create the regime classification system.

      6. Where to draw the line? From degree to dichotomy in measures of democracy - Matthijs Bogaards 08/2012

        Article Supplementary A discussion of the problems involved in deciding whether to opt for "gradual" or "dichotomous" (yes/no) measures of democracy and non-democracy.

      7. Democracy, Power, Genocide, and Mass Murder - R. J. Rummel 1995

        Article Recommended Argues that totalitarian regimes have been responsible for the main cases of genocide and politicide in the world.

      8. Everyday Stalinism: ordinary life in extraordinary times : Soviet Russia in the 1930s - Sheila Fitzpatrick, ebrary, Inc 1999 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Read one chapter of this book - any of them is fine. A very influential discussion here about life under Stalinism.

      9. Democratizing Democracy: A Postcolonial Critique of Conventional Approaches to the ‘Measurement of Democracy’ - Thomas A. Koelble, Edward Lipuma 02/2008

        Article Supplementary Another critique of attempts to measure democracy.

      10. Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case - Diego Giannone 02/2010

        Article Supplementary A critique of the Freedom House approach to the measurement of freedom and democracy.

      11. Totalitarian and Authoritarian Dictators: A Comparison of Fidel Castro and Alfredo Stroessner - Paul C. Sondrol 10/1991

        Article Recommended An attempt to distinguish between authoritarian and totalitarian dictators in two Latin American cases.

      12. The Nazi dictatorship: problems and perspectives of interpretation - Ian Kershaw 2000

        Book Recommended Read at least one chapter for your EBP; I'd recommend chapter 2, "The Essence of Nazism"

      13. The Third Reich in power, 1933-1939 - Richard J. Evans 2006

        Book Recommended Read one chapter of this book; I'd recommend 'Enemies of the People' but it's hard to choose.

      14. Stalinism and Nazism: dictatorships in comparison - Ian Kershaw, Moshe Lewin 1997

        Book Recommended Read at least one chapter of this book.

      15. The origins of totalitarianism - Hannah Arendt 1973

        Book Recommended Read at least chapter 13, "Ideology and Terror: A Novel Form of Government" (which is short), though I'd recommend reading also chapter 12, "Totalitarianism in Power" (which is not so short). This is the classical view of totalitarianism.

      16. The anatomy of fascism - Robert O. Paxton 2004

        Book Recommended Read at least one chapter of this book if you're doing an EBP on it. I recommend chapter 5, "Exercising Power," but any of the others would be fine.

      17. Politics and society in twentieth-century Spain - Stanley G. Payne 1976

        Book Recommended Read ch. 7 "An Authoritarian Regime: Spain" if you're doing an EBP on this book.

      18. How dictatorships work: power, personalization, and collapse - Barbara Geddes, Joseph Wright, Erica Frantz 2018

        Book Recommended Read chapter 2

      19. Authoritarian Turnover and Change in Comparative Perspective - Jeremy Wallace

        Chapter Recommended A discussion of different ways of thinking about non-democratic regimes

    3. Chapter 3: The Struggle over Social Control: Totalitarian and Authoritarian Rule • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For some additional graphical material, take at the extra figures here. Contains some computer code - ignore unless you want to make your own figures. (No need for doing an EBP of this!)

  3. Week 3: Authoritarianism vs. Competitive Authoritarianism 22 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Finish chapter 3, pp. 50-61

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 3 20 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 1 or 8 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. How democracies die - Steven Levitsky, Daniel Ziblatt 2018

        Book Recommended Read chapters 1 and 2 (or any other 2 chapters)

      2. Competitive authoritarianism: hybrid regimes after the Cold War - Steven Levitsky, Lucan Way, ebrary, Inc 2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended Read chapter 1, pp. 3-36. Levitsky and Way coined the term “competitive authoritarianism” in an earlier article. This is the introduction of a book discussing all examples of competitive authoritarianism that emerged in the 1990s. Levitsky and Way have a distinctive theory of competitive authoritarianism: what it is, how it emerges, and how competitive authoritarian regimes become democratized. Consider, in particular, what distinguishes such regimes from democracies and from other authoritarian regimes, as well as what they say about the factors that promote their stability or democratization.

      3. Populism and competitive authoritarianism in the Andes - Steven Levitsky, James Loxton 01/2013

        Article Recommended A broader look at the intersection between populism and competitive authoritarianism in Latin America.

      4. An Autopsy of Managed Democracy - Ivan Krastev, Stephen Holmes 2012

        Article Recommended Competitive authoritarianism in Russia. What are elections for in Russia? With some fun quotes.

      5. Chavismo, Liberal Democracy, and Radical Democracy - Hawkins, Kirk A. 2016

        Article Recommended Discusses the controversy about whether the Chavez regime was democratic in detail.

      6. The autocratic mandate: elections, legitimacy and regime stability in Singapore - Morgenbesser, Lee 2016

        Article Recommended Contains banned words in its title!

      7. In Search of Stability: Electoral Legitimation under Authoritarianism in Myanmar - Morgenbesser, Lee 2015

        Article Recommended Contains banned words in its title!

      8. On Democratic Backsliding - Nancy Bermeo 2016

        Article Recommended

      9. Mimicking Democracy to Prolong Autocracies - Kendall-Taylor, Andrea ; Frantz, Erica 2014

        Article Recommended

      10. The Menu of Manipulation - Schedler, Andreas 2002

        Article Recommended

      11. Rising competitive authoritarianism in Turkey - Berk Esen, Sebnem Gumuscu 09/2016

        Article Recommended

  4. Week 4: Personal vs. Institutionalized Rule 16 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Read chapter 4, pp. 62-83

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 4 14 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 2 or 7 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. How dictatorships work: power, personalization, and collapse - Barbara Geddes, Joseph Wright, Erica Frantz 2018

        Book Recommended Read chapter 4

      2. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule - Milan W. Svolik 2012

        Book Recommended Chapter 3, pp. 53-63 discusses the process of establishing personal rule. It gets a bit technical after that.

      3. Personal Rule: Theory and Practice in Africa - Robert H. Jackson, Carl G. Rosberg 07/1984

        Article Recommended

      4. The Emperor Mobutu - Michela Wrong 2000

        Article Recommended

      5. African Personal Dictatorships - Samuel Decalo 1985

        Article Recommended

      6. Sultanistic regimes 1998

        Book Recommended Read at least one chapter of this book - I recommend chapter 1, but you can choose any - the chapters on the Marcos in the Philippines or Trujillo in the Dominican Republic are good, for example.

      7. Revolution 1989: the fall of the Soviet empire - Victor Sebestyen 2010

        Book Recommended Read chapter 16 on Ceausescu. his is a very well written journalistic account of the last years of the Ceausescu regime in Romania.

      8. Libya: the rise and fall of Qaddafi - Alison Pargeter, ebrary, Inc c2012 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      9. THE NORTH KOREAN AUTOCRACY IN COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE - Wonjun Song, Joseph Wright 07/2018

        Article Recommended

      10. Libya's Qaddafi: the politics of contradiction - Mansour O. El-Kikhia c1997

        Book Recommended Read chapter 5, on the Qaddafi regime in the mid-1990s.

    3. Chapter 4: Personal Rule • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For some additional graphical material, and information about how to construct the figures, take a look at this. Contains code - ignore unless you want to work with it. No need to write EBPs on this!

  5. Week 5: The Institutions of Non-Democracy: Parties, Military Forces, and Dynastic Families 17 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Read chapter 5, pp. 85-107, and begin chapter 6 (pp. 108-119)

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 5 15 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 3 or 6 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule - Milan W. Svolik 2012

        Book Recommended Chapter 5, pp. 123-138, has an important theory of the conditions for military intervention. Chapter 6, pp. 162ff. discusses parties in non-democratic regimes, though the discussion gets quite technical at times - try to get the main points, and skim the rest.

      2. Political Order and One-Party Rule - Magaloni, Beatriz ; Kricheli, Ruth 2010

        Article Recommended

      3. How dictatorships work: power, personalization, and collapse - Barbara Geddes, Joseph Wright, Erica Frantz 2018

        Book Recommended Read chapter 6, on parties and elections

      4. Non-Democratic Regimes (Comparative Government and Politics) - Paul Brooker December 18, 2013

        Book Recommended Read Chapter 3: Establishing Military Rule.

      5. The Party: the secret world of China's communist rulers - Richard McGregor c2010

        Book Recommended Chapter 1, opening chart, pp. 1-33. An account of the modern Chinese Communist Party.

      6. Vietnam through Chinese Eyes - Regina Abrami, Edmund Malesky, Yu Zheng

        Chapter 

      7. Military Rule - Geddes, Barbara ; Frantz, Erica ; Wright, Joseph G. 2014

        Article Recommended

      8. Elections and distributive politics in Mubarak's Egypt - Lisa Blaydes 2010

        Book Recommended Read introduction

      9. Voting for Autocracy: Hegemonic Party Survival and its Demise in Mexico - Beatriz Magaloni - Google Books - Beatriz Magaloni

        Book Recommended Read Introduction

    3. Chapter 5: Parties • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For more graphical material on this week's topics, take a look at the additional figures here. Do not write EBPs on this!

  6. Week 6: Institutions, continued 18 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Finish chapter 6 (pp. 108-119) and read chapter 7 (pp. 120-129)

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 6 15 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 4 or 5 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. Turkey: How the Coup Failed - Berk Esen, Sebnem Gumuscu 2017

        Article Recommended

      2. How dictatorships work: power, personalization, and collapse - Barbara Geddes, Joseph Wright, Erica Frantz 2018

        Book Recommended Read chapter 3, on coups

      3. The man on horseback: the role of the military in politics - S. E. Finer 1976

        Book Recommended Read chapters 1-3 (pp. 1-23)

      4. Resilient Royals: How Arab Monarchies Hang On - Yom, Sean L ; Gause, F. Gregory 2012

        Article Recommended

    3. Chapter 6: Armies • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For more graphical material on this and last week's topics, see the figures here. (No need to write EBPs on this)

    4. Chapter 7: Dynastic Families • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For more graphical material on this week's topics, see the figures here. (No need to write EBPs on this).

  7. Week 7: Problems of Non-democratic Consolidation and Control 17 items
    Includes questions of propaganda, information flows, censorship, cults of personality, authoritarian ritual, and the like.
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Read chapter 8 (pp. 130-152)

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 7 16 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 4 or 5 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. What the Party Wanted to Know - Dimitrov, Martin K 2014

        Article Recommended

      2. A Theory of Censorship - Margaret Roberts 2018

        Chapter Recommended

      3. Communicating authoritarian elite cohesion - Schedler, Andreas ; Hoffmann, Bert 2015

        Article 

      4. Nothing to envy: ordinary lives in North Korea - Barbara Demick 2010

        Book Recommended Read chapter 6, pp. 90-102

      5. How to Subvert Democracy: Montesinos in Peru - McMillan, John ; Zoido, Pablo 2002

        Article Recommended

      6. The Mao Cult - Xavier Marquez

        Webpage Recommended

      7. How Censorship in China Allows Government Criticism but Silences Collective Expression - King, Gary ; Pan, Jennifer Jie ; Roberts, Margaret Earling 2013

        Article Recommended

      8. Economic Crime and Punishment in North Korea - Haggard, Stephan ; Noland, Marcus 2012

        Article Recommended

  8. Week 8: Benevolent Authoritarianism 17 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Read chapter 9 (pp. 153-181)

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 8 15 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 3 or 6 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. Economically Benevolent Dictators: Lessons for Developing Democracies - Gilson, Ronald J. ; Milhaupt, Curtis J. ; Ronald J. Gilson ; Curtis J. Milhaupt 2011

        Article Recommended

      2. Political Competition and Economic Growth - Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce ; Morrow, James D ; Siverson, Randolph M ; Smith, Alastair 2001

        Article Recommended

      3. The Oxford handbook of political economy - Barry R. Weingast, Donald A. Wittman 2006

        Book Recommended

      4. Singapore: Does Authoritarianism Pay? - Verweij, Marco ; Pelizzo, Riccardo 2009

        Article Recommended

      5. Benevolent Autocrats - William Easterly

        Document Recommended

      6. Why Are the Fastest Growing Countries Autocracies? - Zhaotian Luo, Adam Przeworski 04/2019

        Article Recommended

      7. Economic development and democracy: An electoral connection - CARL HENRIK KNUTSEN, JOHN GERRING, SVEND-ERIK SKAANING, JAN TEORELL 02/2019

        Article Recommended

      8. Cuban infant mortality and longevity: health care or repression? - Gilbert Berdine, Vincent Geloso, Benjamin Powell 01/07/2018

        Article Recommended

    3. Chapter 9: Benevolent Authoritarianism • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For additional graphical material on this topic, take a look at the figures here. No need to do an EBP on this material.

  9. Week 9: Culture and Authoritarianism 15 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Begin chapter 10, pp. 182-197.

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 9 14 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 2 or 7 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. World culture report 1998: culture, creativity and markets 1998

        Book Recommended Read the chapter by Adam Przeworski, “Culture and Democracy.” In World Culture Report: Culture, Creativity, and Markets, 125-146. UNESCO

      2. Islam and Authoritarianism - Fish, M. Steven 2002

        Article Recommended

      3. New Findings on Arabs and Democracy - Tessler, Mark A ; Jamal, Amaney A. ; Robbins, Michael 2012

        Article Recommended

      4. Freedom rising: human empowerment and the contemporary quest for emancipation - Christian Welzel 2013

        Book Recommended Read introduction, chapter 1

      5. Does democracy produce quality of government? - NICHOLAS CHARRON, VICTOR LAPUENTE 06/2010

        Article Recommended

  10. Week 10: Economic Conflict and Regime Change 13 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Finish chapter 10, pp. 197-207

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 10 11 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 1 or 8 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy - Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson 2005

        Book Recommended Read Pp. 1-47, 51-75

      2. Does liberté=égalité?: a survey of the empirical links between democracy and inequality - Mark Gradstein, Branko Milanović, World Bank. Development Research Group. Poverty Team 2002 (electronic resource)

        Book Recommended

      3. A nation of enemies: Chile under Pinochet - Pamela Constable, Arturo Valenzuela 1993, ©1991

        Book Recommended Read chapter 1

      4. "Business Populism" in Thailand - Phongpaichit, Pasuk ; Baker, Christopher John 2005

        Article Recommended

    3. Chapter 10: The Roots of Regime Change and Democratization • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For some additional material on this week's topics, see the material here. No need to do an EBP on this material.

  11. Week 11: Contentious Politics and its Diffusion 17 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Begin chapter 11, pp. 208-224

    2. Recommended (and EBP) readings for week 11 16 items
      IMPORTANT: People with student IDs ending in 1 or 8 will need to choose at least one of these readings to summarize in their Explanatory Blog Post (EBP) this week.
      1. Contentious Politics - Tilly, Charles;Tarrow, Sidney 2015

        Book Recommended

      2. Revolution 1989: the fall of the Soviet empire - Victor Sebestyen 2010

        Book Recommended Read part III, especially chapter 48 on the fall of the Romanian regime

  12. Week 12: Violent and non-violent revolution 3 items
    1. Non-democratic politics: authoritarianism, dictatorship, and democratization - Xavier Márquez 2017

      Book Required Finish chapter 11 and conclusion (pp. 224- 243)

    2. Transitions from authoritarian rule: Tentative conclusions about uncertain democracies - Guillermo A. O'Donnell, Philippe C. Schmitter, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. Latin American Program c1986

      Book Recommended

    3. Chapter 11: How do regimes change? Contentious politics and its diffusion • AuthoritarianismBook

      Webpage Supplementary For more graphical material on the topics for this week, see this. No need to write EBPs on this!